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Heat exchangers are commonly used devices in many industries to provide cooling for critical machine parts. Whether developing a new heat exchanger or optimizing the design of an existing one, understanding the coupled fluid flow and heat transfer physics, or the “conjugate heat transfer” process, associated with heat exchanger operation, is essential to provide better cooling performance.
CFD technology is used routinely for turbomachinery performance analysis and design optimizations for a wide range of turbomachines, including industrial compressors, turbines, pumps for both axial and centrifugal stages, large or small gas turbine compressors with multiple blade rows, marine compressors, fans, blowers, turbochargers, rocket turbopumps, etc.
Turbulence model and implementation (such as LES, DES, SST models), new turbulence model development, radiation model, cavitation model, combustion and chemical reaction model (NOx, soot, etc), two-phase flow model, free surface model, real gas model, or user defined models.
Multiple phase flows are often encountered in industrial systems. By definition, they are flowfields which involve more than single phase of fluid, such as gas-liquid or solid-gas flowfield. Oil-particle separators, vapor condensation, pump cavitation, inkjet droplet formation, trapped air pockets in fluid, and engine fuel sprays are good examples of multi-phase flows. Because of the complex physics of multiple phase flows, CFD has become an integral part of understanding and designing multiple phase flow systems.
In engineering analysis, a moving boundary situation exists in many practical applications. The moving boundary represents a non-stationary computational domain for CFD analyses, which change size and shape with respect to time. In order to resolve the moving boundary, moving mesh (mesh morphing) technology must be embedded in the CFD analysis.
Mixing devices are commonly used in chemical and biomedical industries. Traditional mixers generally use a bladed rotor at the bottom of the tank to provide momentum exchanges between different materials through centrifugal forces to achieve a desired homogeneous state in either material composition or temperature, sometimes both.
Fluid structure interaction is one of most complex engineering analyses, coupling CFD and finite element structural and/or thermal analysis. In an FSI calculation, the solid surfaces act as interfaces between the fluid and solid domains to provide transfer of loads- mechanical or thermal.
Combustor flowfield prediction presents one of the most challenging CFD applications. It involves multiple chemical species, fuel spray which involves two phase flow analysis with particle tracking, evaporation, momentum exchange with the mean flow, chemical reactions, premixed or diffusion flame zones, and the associated strong heat release. Each of the physics involves requires detailed understanding of the complicated flow physics as well as the chemical kinetics. Applications include gas turbine combustors, piston engine combustors, furnaces, etc.
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